Please go through the following threads before going through this thread if you have not already done that.

Do nonMuslims who criticise the Quran know how to study the Quran properly?

Do nonMuslims who criticise the Quran know how to study the Quran properly? Do people who claim to be Muslims know how to study the Quran properly? Are nonMuslim scholars only responding to nonsense of Muslims which they take for deen of Islam or do they have anything original to contribute to the proper understanding of the message of the Quran?

My question to all such scholars is, please tell me what are the very basic requirements for understanding anything at all? I ask this question because both Muslims and nonMuslims claim that the text of the Quran is nothing more than a jumble of verses that make no sense on their own. Is there anything in this universe that anyone can make any sense of without pondering over it? Was the universe and were the things in it there before a person was born? My answer is yes. Was that person aware of all that he saw with his own eyes, heard it with his own ears, smelled it with his own nose, tasted it with his own tongue and felt it with his own sense of touch? Was he born with proper understanding of all this? No, not at all. If that is the fact then how did one come to make sense of all things that he has become aware of so far? The day scholars come to realise this fact they will come to know that the Quranic text is not a collection of random verses. The universe was a perfectly working order complete system before our birth but we only came to know about it once we used our own brains and senses as well as bodily mechanisms to explore the universal realities to make sense of them. It is we who began to see connections between things after we started observing and doing things with whatever we could get our hands on. This is how gradually we built our information bank about the universal realities and our brains by constructing, de-constructing and reconstructing that information started making sense of things. The process is exactly the same when it comes to the Quran. As anyone comes across anything the very first time, things seem disconnected or remote and random till one starts making sense of them, so the Quran is not any exception in this respect.

To understand anything, to begin with we only need brain language which is all pre-programmed just like a computer comes ready to process information. If we did not have pre-programmed brains to a degree we will not be able to process any data that we sensed with our senses. Imagine putting on windows on a computer that had no cpu=central processing unit. More precisely the ALU arithmetic logic unit that acts as a cpu. All this is called hardware. The brain is a biological computer if you like. That is biologically hard wired ready to make use of its senses and to process any information it gets through them as a mechanism for stimulus or a window to outside world.

Brain keeps collecting information through its senses but it then wants to act on this information so it uses its body mechanisms to express itself or connects to outside world to influence it the way it wants. This is how comes about interaction between things in the environment one is born in. This interaction forced people to communicate with each other using additional languages basically body language and sign language and then that led to spoken language as sounds made by people began to take form of codes for real world realities as their names or names of their actions or the way they seemed related to each other etc etc.

Unless people therefore understand the origin and development as well as use of spoken and written language they cannot understand anything about the origin and development of revelation of Allah throughout times and places or origin and development of humanity itself.

This should leave one in no doubt at all as to why so called scholars both Muslims and nonMuslims fail to make proper sense of the text of the Quran. It is because the language provides the very foundational context of any spoken or written word in any book not just the Quran.

The truth is both Muslims and nonMuslims scholars seriously lack knowledge about deen of Islam and due to that all people are busy killing each other due to animal behaviour or worse.

From my above explanation it should be very clear how important communication is between people and therefore the importance of language becomes very much self evident. Now think about how a human baby learns a human language. Once a baby is born into this world his brain and senses begin to work according to environment of this universe so he keeps observing things as they happen all around him and so data keeps gathering in his head as time goes on. He tries to make sense of things as much as he can at each moment of his awareness. He begins to see that people and things around him react to each other through body movements as well as some sounds. After long period of quiet observation he tries to act the same way in order to copy others in their movements as well as their sounds. He begins to see that others also react to him as he makes some moves or sounds so he keeps remembering these little things and that way builds up a bank of codes in his mind for movements and sounds as words. From this it should be clear that people only come to know what they have picked up through their observations and nothing beyond till they develop capability of thinking at higher level. Not only that it also makes it amply clear that thinking does not start all by itself rather there has to be some triggering factors that draw attention towards something to think about. So learning is all about something drawing attention of people and then people exploring the thing towards which their attention is drawn. If attention of a person is not drawn to something in some way ever, one will never become aware of it ever.

This should explain how people learn a language and why they speak only that language to which their attention has been drawn and do not speak any other language to which they have not been exposed. Take this to origin of human species ie how people invented language in sense of listening and talking as well as reading and writing. Human species came about from tree of life just like other species of living things and developed with time. They started as another species of animals in human shape and gradually developed various way of communication among themselves through observing other things that were already there. Originally humans were driven by their drives and reflexive behaviour due to their very limited thinking capacity due to their limited observations and life experiences. However as they built on their experiences generation after generation they began to think first and act later instead of acting first and thinking later. Just as a human baby acts first and then thinks if he is forced to do so by some sort of reaction to his action so original humans gradually became a thinking people who began to reason things out just as babies gradually learn to reason things. This is why the wider and the deeper the life experience one has the better one's making sense of things is.

Since we know how human language came about and developed question arises, how did people give meanings to words? Originally people had certain imaginations in their heads about things they observed so there were no words but then they made bodily gestures to each other and learned to code them in their minds and that helped them to code sounds as well. Any bodily gesture made by anyone meant the whole things not just one word as we know it today. If one raised his hand to show someone I am going to beat you up that is what it meant by raising of hand that way. If one showed by gesture of hands that I am going to catch you, that is what it meant by that gesture. But as soon as sounds became codified the bodily gestures took form of words the same bodily gestures were translated into meaningful words that made sense to people among themselves. The sound language came about because people wanted to explain to each other things they could not explain by bodily gestures alone eg for preservation purposes for future generations. The same urge led mankind to finding a way of writing down the information. This is how people ended up drawing pictures to explain events they experienced. Pictorial writing gave way to letters and letters were modified again and again to refine them for ease of writing. Likewise spoken language went through modifications for sake of refinement or precision. If we go back to how baby starts talking using very same word for each and everything but then as time goes on he develops capability of saying more and more words to say what he wants to say. With time he builds up vocabulary and so did human beings originally generation after generation. As we can see each and every step in human development was driven by need or usefulness. In other words all this helped mankind to survive and progress because knowledge and skills help people get through life easier as compared to those who remain ignorant and unskilled.

Originally people drew pictures of things as a way of writing down what they wanted to say eg they drew picture of a head of an ox or a bull to represent power or authority. They drew picture of a tent to represent family or a household, picture of water to represent sea or a human head to represent chief and so on and so forth. If we look into Arabic letters they are meaningful words eg ALIF means bull and it represent power and authority or stick, BAA means house because originally it was pronounced BAAIT in Hebrew where Arabs got it from. What is known as RAA in Arabic was RAISH in Hebrew or in Arabic RAAS=head or chief. Likewise letter AIN means eye both in Hebrew as well as Arabic. Since all letters in Hebrew are meaningful words so they are in Arabic. The root system also originates from Hebrew and ancestral languages. In root system a few letters are taken as a unit or set or root which is given the meanings based upon individual letters as well as sum total of meanings of all letters. This is why each root has various concrete meanings as well as derived meanings because originally each meaning was a label given to a reality in real world eg BAA=BAAIT=house and house is a concrete reality then word BAAIT itself has three letter root ie BAA, YAA and TAA, so these meanings keep on expanding with each extra word and its combination of letters. YAA means YAD both in Hebrew and Arabic and it means hand. This is how letters were attached meanings in forms of roots. Once a letter was given concrete meanings a set of conceptual meanings also came about based upon what a things was and what it did or what it was useful for or was used for or the way it worked or served a purpose. For example, letter AIN means eye but what is eye and what it does or is used for is also part of meanings of letter ain. This is why in Arabic a root can have many meanings not just one or two. Now that things about origin and development of language are explained in detail it is easy for anyone who has knowledge to see how many objections people raise against the Quran based on lack of understanding of language as to how it came about, developed and was used and as well as how words got their meanings or how language works in actual fact etc etc.

Let us now turn to the Quran. People ask, why Allah does not explain each and everything in detail in the Quran? It is because Allah had a purpose in his mind and had a plan for mankind due to which he created people and the rest of the universe and sent his revelations for mankind to live by so that purpose and plan of Allah comes to its fulfilment. All this is explained in detail in the Quran the final revelation of Allah for the mankind. Whenever anyone does anything one has some reason or purpose for doing it. Allah created mankind and the universe and sent his revelations because he is a living being and wanted to express himself. The only way he decided to express himself was through creation and revelation. Since he wanted to express himself he decided to create mankind for appreciating his creator out of his own choice and that is why humans are taken as special creatures of Allah unlike all other creatures.

Since humans have been created with ability to choose to do things at a higher level than all other creatures therefore Allah could not fully program people to be like fully programmed robots instead he had to program them to a degree and leave them to program themselves for the rest of things that is why he gave people brains, senses, bodies, provisions and revelations to learn and do as they please. This is why the Quran only contains information as much as it serves the purpose and plan of creator of the universe and nothing more than that. It is the implication of what one does that binds one to his plan and purpose and so Allah himself bound himself by this purpose and plan and nothing can make Allah change his mind because if he changes his mind then his purpose and plan will fail and that is impossible ie plan of Allah cannot fail. No one forced Allah to take on this responsibility upon himself but he decided to do all this so he will go through with it no matter what. Since Allah has a purpose and a plan to fulfil so it is not possible that Allah should do anything that ruins the whole thing for him.

Allah is capable of lots of things but only as a God just as man is capable of doing things but only as a human being and this is why the Quran is the way it is. What do I mean by that? I mean that the Quran is a limited text in a language that was not yet fully developed. Why Allah had to send the Quran in an ancient language and why he chose Arabic in particular for the revelation of the Quran as his final message for humanity? It is because Arabic was the only language that could serve purpose of his revelation in this age. Why? Because it was a root based language and that made it very flexible for meanings of words so Allah could express his thoughts in a human language that was so flexible in its meaning therefore it could accommodate thoughts of Allah for guidance of mankind. Not only that but all other root based languages were not as wide spread as Arabic at the time and since then. This is what made it right for the purpose of Allah. But why Allah did not wait till Arabic language developed to its fullest? It is because a fully developed language becomes very precise therefore needs more text for explaining the very same thing because it has more words for more concepts. Let us go back to development of a human baby. A human baby begins with less words to tell many things and as he grows with time he gets to know more and more words for telling about more and more things. However his ratio of words and thoughts gradually reduces ie he uses more number of words for expressing lesser number of thoughts and that is what leads to precision use of language. So what the baby told us using a word or two now he can tell us in many words. His parents had no problem understanding him because they had learned to make sense of what he used to say when he was speaking less number of words. So people who learn things can understand them and those who do not bother to make sense of things they do not understand them regardless the language is under developed or over developed, course or fine.

If the Quran was revealed in a fully developed language its text ought to increase many folds than the text of the Quran we have. Imagine Allah revealing a huge encyclopaedia containing each and everything we humans ever needed, could we make any use of it? No, why not? Because human brain is not that capable to cope with that amount of information. As things are in this universe the way it works, it will have been impossible for people to copy information and share it with each other or to preserve it for coming generations or to carry it about etc etc. So even though Allah was capable of sending people a huge book, people were not able to cope with it due to human limitations. This is why people need to look at things in the context they are explained in the Quran by Allah himself instead of telling Allah what he should or should not have done. This is not for people to decide but right of Allah because when Allah decided things people were not around to give him their suggestions. Moreover if Allah followed our human suggestions instead of doing what he wanted to do, this universe will still be worked upon by Allah because each person will have told Allah many different ways to create things, so plan of Allah will still not have seen the light of the day.

This explanation should make clear to anyone with knowledge why knowing things about language is so important because then one can clearly see implications of attacking the Quran from the wrong angles eg why Allah did not explain things in more detail etc.

The study about origin and development of language tells us that words have various meanings and that those meanings are based upon solid foundation beyond a shadow of doubt. This deals a fatal blow to criticism of the Quran by those people who say that Muslims are seeing things in the Quran which were not there before after they have been discovered by scientists? It shows that if people who claim to be scientist do not have knowledge about the origin and development of language then they can end up making false claims about something they know nothing about. This is how looking at things in their proper context reveals the truth beyond a shadow of doubt. Take for example letter AIN in Arabic. It means eye but it also means a spring why? Because when eye cries it sheds tears and that is why it also means a source of water ie water spring or well or pond or river or sea etc etc. Moreover the very same letter ain means help or support and that is because eye is very much helpful to a person who uses it to see things to find his way to things or around things. This is why to guard or to keep an eye on things and likewise many other meanings come about as a result of a rule whereby meanings of words keep on expanding. On one hand this flexibility in the language helps accommodate various concepts but on the other it also creates a problem that if a word can have so many meanings then how do we choose the right meaning of a word?

After language based context one has to look at the text on basis of its purpose. For example, if I am going to employ someone to guard a place as a watchman then other meanings of word AIN will fall away and that means I am not talking about a water spring. Likewise if I am lifting something heavy and need help with it then I am not looking for a guard or water spring and that is how context makes things very clear despite a word having so many different meanings due to context of origin and development of language. Likewise when we look at words in the Quran we need to keep in mind that we are looking at the Quran as a supposed word of Allah. Why do we need to do that? Because the Quran so claims ie it tells us it is word of God. Since the Quran itself claims to be word of God therefore we have no choice but to examine it for what it claims to be. We cannot investigate something for which we have no claim or accusation or no reason to investigate. Unless there is some case to answer or some accusation or claim about something we have no reason to start an investigation. Only when we have a reason for starting any investigation we will start an investigation. When it comes to the Quran, we cannot start an investigate for what it does not claim to be because we can only start an investigation for what it claims to be and since it claims to be word of God so that is the only reason we can start investigating its claim to see if it proves itself true or not. This means anyone trying to prove the Quran is not the word of God is looking at things the wrong way round. It is a situation like someone claims he has murdered someone and another person comes along and says no he did not. Now we have two opposite claims but the priority rests with person who claims to have murdered someone.

So first we will have to ask the person who claims to have murdered someone to bring his evidence and only if he fails in providing one that we may go to the other person to see what is his evidence for claiming he did not murder someone. However if the person who claims to have murdered someone comes up with a credible or irrefutable evidence then the other person is proven wrong who claimed he did not murder someone. This means people who instead of investigating the Quran for its claim raise other claims against it but have never been able to properly investigate the Quran in the first place to begin with their claims about the Quran are not credible at all. To show they have investigated the Quran for its truth the first things they will need to know is origin and development of language and then the purpose of revelation of the Quran in the context of the Quranic text. If a person is unable to show the Quran has any model in its text but in actual fact there is a model that can be shown from the Quranic text then the case is clear that either the person investigating the Quran does not have the tools needed to know how to investigate the Quran properly or that one is being deliberately dishonest for one reason or the other better known to oneself.

What do we need to keep in mind when we investigate the Quran for its truth? We need to keep in mind that if the Quran is truly word of God then it is talking about things exactly as they are so all meanings of all words need to be taken in that context because God is creator of all things he is talking about in the Quran ie he is talking about things from his point of view where he talks from his point of view unless he is quoting others. The other thing we need to keep in our minds is that we are human beings and as human being we do not know facts as they are till we learn about them in detail through our own research and exploration. So it is a matter of fact that we may not know actual facts about things because we may not have learned them yet therefore we will not be able to make proper sense of things we never learned but the Quran talks about them. So if we do not know things about things then we cannot be certain in expressing our opinions about them till we have come to know them. If we say something is right or wrong without knowing it then that is not the right way to do things. For example, Allah talks in the Quran about human beings in detail but to know what Allah is saying we also need to reach our own understandings about human beings through our own research and exploration or we will not know what Allah is talking about if we are not familiar with things he is talking about regarding human beings.

The question is, have we carried out our own research and exploration as to what human beings are so that we could make sense of what Allah is exactly talking about when he talks about human beings? Allah talks in the Quran in detail about human society, politics, economics etc etc but if we do not know anything much about any of these subject matters then how can we claim we know what the Quran is talking about? Likewise Allah talks in the Quran in detail about philosophy of science and philosophy of history but do we know what philosophy of science and philosophy history is about? Allah talks in the Quran in detail about his program, goals and guidelines for mankind but do we know anything about all this? Allah talks about the universe and things in it in detail but have we carried out any research and exploration to know the universe and things in it? He talks about constitution and laws for mankind but do we know anything about them? Allah talks about organisation and regulation of human society but have we ourselves properly learned anything about organisation and regulation or have we managed to organise and regulate ourselves properly as a proper human community? So who has investigated the Quranic text properly in detail to reach a proper conclusion one way or the other about the Quran?

All this explanation should show very clearly to people of knowledge whether anyone has investigated the Quran properly ever since its revelation after the messenger of Allah passed away. To be able to answer questions about deen of Islam one has to know the Quran properly and one cannot know the Quran properly till one has reasonable grasp over idea of origin of language, how it got its concepts therefore meanings. It is because the Quran was revealed in a particular human language at a particular time in written form as well as in form of reading.

No mullah has any idea about the origin of language, its development and progress and the relevant implications. This is why almost all translations of the Quran are mostly defective because they do not take into account the contexts of the Quranic text. Who can say anything for certain about anything if one has no idea what human language itself is? If anyone wants to make sense of the Quranic text, one has to look for information outside the box in which so called scholars and mullahs have put people for a very long time now.

1)Which scholar or mullah do you need to go to for studying origin of language? All you need to do is learn any facts about any language from any people who are expert in knowing and teaching those facts about a language and they do not have to be Muslims only or nonMuslims only. In fact they can be atheists or theists or neither.

2)Which scholar or mullah do you need to go to, to learn about realities of real world? All you need to do is go to people who observe real word realities and explore and carry out research works therefore discover things and inform people about them.

3)It is a matter of fact that one cannot understand the Quran unless one knows facts about the human language and the language used for the Quran by Allah. Because it gives us foundational context of the Quranic text. It is due to having proper sense of human language that we are able to make sense of realities of our universe in which we are born. It is then that these realities of real world give us secondary foundational context to see what the message of the Quran may be. If we do not know things about language or real world realities then we have no way of knowing what words are and what they actually mean. This is why the Quran puts emphasis on using our God given brains, senses, bodies and provided things including his revelation properly, otherwise people are nothing more than animals. In fact God himself labels them worst of all the animals.

4)Only if one has sense of these contexts, the context of the Quranic text within itself becomes important not otherwise. Once we have the understanding of the Quranic text in these contexts only then we have the context for things attributed to the messenger of Allah as a criterion to see if they are true or false. Once we have all these things properly in their proper contexts we can see what people attributed to people is true or false because then we have the solid criterion to judge things by.

All this explanation shows that one does not need any scholar or mullah to explain anything at all because learning and doing things is common heritage of humanity. We can learn anything from anyone who knows it. However whatever we learn we have a duty to pass it on to others for ensuring well being of mankind.

The Quranic use of languages helps expand human power of thinking. How does it do it? It does it by using less number of words for expressing more number of concepts and facts. It is because when things are talked about in less detail then the listener has to put pressure on one's own mind to think out what the speaker is talking about and that helps mind expand and become more sophisticated ie the more one tries to figure out things the more human mind expands and becomes more capable of making sense of more things which in turn helps humanity make progress and prosper. Through revelations Allah has been drawing human attention to things so that people are stimulated to explore things and grow both physically and mentally. So the revelations by Allah played a huge role in helping humanity to be what it is though people did not make full use of it so far otherwise world could have been in a much better state than it is.

To address questions about Quranic transmission is also important. The fact is, the Quran we have today is the same as the one the messenger of Allah left behind. it is because the transmission of the Quran has been flawless. The Quran came to us in three different ways independent of each other. In form of written text that has been copied from written copies. In form of memorised words through chain of hufaaz (=memorisers of the Quran by heart) and in form of meanings of the words used in the text. You cannot write the Quran out of memory alone particularly uniformly nor memorise it from written text without differences due to nature of the Arabic language the way it is due to its origin, development and progress as well as its use and working. Because there is uniformity in memorised Quranic text as well as there is uniformity in written Quranic text copies that concretely proves it beyond a shadow of doubt the Quran was transmitted flawlessly. It is because the way Arabic was written in ancient times people could not memorise the Quran as a uniform recitation from their individual writings due to inter-changeability in spellings of words and likewise they could not write it down from memory as a uniform text due to various ways of writing the same words due to replacement of letters in words due to multiple roots of the very same words. This is why any claim that the Quran was not a written down text in the time of the messenger of Allah falls flat on its face.

Anyone who knows about origin of language and its development knows that Arabic uses a letter replacement idea in words a lot. It is because Arabic is a relatively new language as compared to its sister or ancestral languages such as Aramaic, Hebrew, Ugarit, Phoenician, Syriac, Akkadian etc. Since Arabic comes from other languages so it borrows words from them therefore it ends up using multiple roots to express the very same concept due to transliteration problems between languages. For example, word MAKKAH is also called BAKKAH why? Because these two words Arabic borrowed from two or more different languages. It is like word PARAAN and FARAAN. In Persian both sounds exists ie P as well as F but in Arabic P sound does not exist so the Arabs use their own closely resembling sound to P which is F or B. So while Persians say PARAAN Arabs say FARAAN. The same is the case with word PAKISTAN ie Arabs say BAKISTAN ie they replace P with B.

This problem exists between languages as a matter of fact. It is also a matter of fact that languages have been borrowing from each other heavily because they are interconnected just like generations of the people themselves. In some cases one language has borrowed from another language directly but in other cases indirectly ie first a word was borrowed by one language so it was modified to suit use of that language and then from that language it was borrowed by another language and was modified to make it suitable for use in that language. So depending on from how many different languages a word has been borrowed by a borrowing language it became pronounced and written in different ways in the very same language that borrowed it and this is the case in case of Arabic language as well. In Arabic letters like TAA, SAA and TWAA are interchangeable because they sound very close. Likewise letter BAA, FAA, MEEM and WOW are interchangeable. The case is same with letters SEEN and SWAAD or letter ZAAL, ZAA, ZWAAD and ZWAA. Letter ZWAAD however can also be interchanged with letter DAAL because it is also called DWAAD instead of ZWAAD. Same is problem with letters KHAA, QAAF and KAAF, HAA and HAA etc etc. Over a period of time in Arabic itself letters and pronunciations became standardised but transliteration related problems between different languages remain the same even today. Arabs did not modify their language beyond 28 letters symbols but they modified the language by adding symbols for vowels including HAMZAH eg FATAH, KASRA, DAMMA, MADDA, SHADDA and a short alif symbol which is placed above or below a letter to make it equal to adding ALIF or YAA. The Quranic text is based upon that standard. There has been no modification in number of letters since the revelation of the Quran. So long as the Quran remains in existence and people keep adhering to it, there will not be any modification in Arabic language of that nature which changes it completely into a modern language breaking its ties with its past like other latest languages. However borrowing between Arabic and newer languages continues even today and so it continues between other languages as well.

The purpose of this explanation was to show why Arabic has more than one root set for a word in some cases. For example, let us take word KITAAB. It has only one root in Arabic ie KAAF, TAA and BAA. However this is not the case with word ISRAA. This word has a few roots ie SEEN, RAA and WOW; SEEN RAA and YAA; SEEN, WOW and RAA; and SEEN, YAA and RAA. In ancient times all Arabs moved away from each other so they were not one people living in one and the same place speaking exactly the very same kind of Arabic even though originally they come from the very same ancestors. Human race itself is originally one race that comes from same ancestors but people moved away from each other as their needs and situations or circumstances demanded or dictated. After separating each people kept on inventing more things and words to talk about them so today people have come together again but they speak very many different languages from what they learned from their original ancestors though some of the words we can still make out among all people because they remained unchanged or suffered less change despite transliteration problems. Likewise Arabs even though were same people but they moved away from each other and then they were united and so there were differences between their spoken and written language of this nature because each group borrowed from other people of other languages they were in contact with as they needed. All this explanation in my view was necessary to come to the point because it will help people understand something I am going to explain about the originality of the Quranic text.

As explained above a lot of words in Arabic are written using different letters. For example, let us take word SIRAAT. In Arabic language word SIRAAT is written in two ways ie using SEEN as its first letter or SWAAD. In some places people write word SIRAAT using letter SWAAD and in others using letter SEEN so word SIRAAT has two roots ie SWAAD, RAA and TWAA as well as SEEN, RAA and TWAA. If we read the Quranic text, nowhere in the Quran word SIRAAT is written with letter SEEN at the beginning and everywhere in the Quran word SIRAAT is always written with letter SWAAD. You will agree that if the Quran did not come down in written form and people made copies out of their memories as individuals independent of each other then we ought to find that some copies of the Quran ought to have in them word siraat written with letter swaad and in others word siraat written with letter seen. In fact each copy was bound to have letters seen and swaad in different places compared to each other. Since all copies of the Quran to date contain this word written only and only by using letter swaad then how do we explain this consistency unless people were given a copy of the Quran in writing to copy the written text from it exactly as it was? Let me explain this in another way in English. If I dictated to a mixed group of people from different countries in different places to write down word MUHAMMAD, will they all write it exactly as I have it in my mind or will they do it the way they know it according to their own life experiences in their own places? An Italian person will write Muhammad the way he thinks and an English person will write it the way he thinks and a French person will write it the way he thinks etc etc. Some will end up writing Muhammad others Mohammed and yet others Mohamed and so on and so forth.

Word SIRAAT is not the only one but there are dozens of such words used in the text of the Quran throughout the text of the Quran and they have been transmitted constantly exactly the same. This should leave no doubt in one's mind that the Quran was transmitted both in written and spoken forms right from the day one otherwise such differences as explained between copies that still exist in the world of different times and places will have been unimaginable due to nature of the Arabic language. For an Urdu, Farsi or Arabic speaker it is very easy to refute all scholars who think the Quran we have today is not original. How? By looking at ancient copies of the Quran. These copies did not have dots to distinguish between letters to begin with and they did not have vowel marks. What does that mean? To explain what it means let me explain things about Arabic writing a bit. Arabic words are written using full letter shapes as well as stumps of letter shapes. When written in full shape one cannot tell the difference between BAA, TAA and SAA, JEEM, HAA and KHAA, DAAL and ZAAL, RAA and ZAA, SEEN and SHEEN, SWAAD and DWAAD, TWAA and ZWAA, AIN and GHAIN etc without distinguishing dots and that is how Arab used to write Arabic originally in olden times. Likewise when it comes to writing letters as stumps they are written at the beginning of a word or in the middle of a word or at its end. In case of being written in the middle letter NOON also becomes like BAA, TAA and SAA so four letters end up using the very same symbol. Not only that the FAA and QAAF also become indistinguishable as well as letters LAAM and YAA. One can look at ancient Arabic inscriptions as well as copies of the Quran to see what I mean. This being the case none could read a writing unless one already knew the text by heart. If one person wrote something and gave it to another to read who did not know what was written then one will have very tough time to make out what the text might be saying. In short no one could read the written text of the size of the Quran in that style of writing ever if one was not familiar with it already or did not have it in his memory. This is how memory and writing both helped people to keep the text of the Quran properly preserved beyond a shadow of doubt.

In Arabic vowels can be replaced with diacritical marks so each consonant could have six possible sounds eg MEEM could be MU or MOOO, or MA or MAAA, or ME or MEEE etc. So if we wrote just four consonants MHMD, we will have 6x6x6x6=1296 possibilities of pronunciations. These are concrete facts which any scholar can verify for oneself. It is really challenging for any scholar to try reading a text that is size of the Quran merely from the consonants alone without having known it previously. One cannot read such a text unless one has it already in one's memory. This is clear proof that the Quran was memorised direct from the source otherwise merely having a text could end up as countless number of different readings because each word could be pronounced in many different ways due to lack of diacritical marks as well as due to lack of dots for identification of each letter in words. The lack of such huge number of variant reading of the Quranic text in the Muslim world concretely proves that the Quran as we have it today is original. There is no scholar on earth who could ever prove otherwise or enemies of deen of Islam who do not let go any opportunity to attack it will have done it already.

Just as it was not possible to read the Quran from the written text alone uniformly so it was not possible to write the Quran uniformly if it was not copied in writing from the already existing written copies of the Quran. Why not? As explained already many words in the Quran had variant roots so if people sat down to write a text out of their memories as individuals then each person will have made a copy from his memory as he knew how to write a word so there will occur numberless variants written texts. For example, if people had to write down word SIRAAT, some will write it with SEEN and others with SWAAD. Not only that but they will do it in different places in the Quranic text wherever this word was repeated. Since the Quran has many such words in it then we ought to find such variations in huge numbers ie trillions of variants but we do not. How can any scholar in the world explain that? So another clear proof that the Quran came down both in written and memorised forms independent of each other.

These simple explanations are sufficient to prove that people who rely on false reports in Hadith books and other sources to prove the Quran was collected and written down after the prophet are seriously mistaken therefore such reports should not be taken seriously in light of such concrete proofs as stated here. Moreover all reliable reports in Hadis books must be interpreted in this context so that they make proper sense.

This however does not mean there are no copying errors in the existing copies of the Quran, there are but the nature of error is very simple ie humans make all sorts of errors due to absent mindedness in whatever they do. Mind always wanders off when people get tired or bored in doing something so they may end up writing something out of context or missing the whole line of text or add something from whatever is in their minds etc etc. Not only that people add their own notes in books for jogging their memory about some points they think are important to highlight for later referral. So those who were copying the Quran suffered the same but nothing was done deliberately because for that one had to have a purpose in mind. What I mean is that if anyone wanted to change the Quran deliberately then one ought to have some purpose in mind which his new Quran could serve and in that case ummah could never have the same Quranic text which it always have had to date.

So all allegations against the originality of the Quran are mere misunderstanding of the scholars and nothing more unless they have ulterior motives to deliberately say falsehood against the originality of the Quran but that only they know for themselves. A misunderstanding of scholars is that they take modification of written Arabic as changes in text of the Quran. They do not realise that when people face problems they look for solutions. It was found very difficult to read and write the Quran the way the original Arabic was written so they came up with idea of adding dots and diacritical marks to reduce dependency on memory. This is why when new ways of writing the very same text were discovered the number of hufaaz of the Quran dropped from say 90% to a few percent. It is because people could now read actual message from the written Arabic text except for a small number of things so dependency on hufaaz decreased with time and coming about of printing press.

To explain the same point further as an example, if a word was management and it was written as MNGMNT but was modified to management due to development and progress in the language then scholars due to their ignorance took it as a change in the actual text of the Quran, which is silly to say the least. We even today use signs for many things including road traffic signs instead of writing because they are easy to work with than standing on a sign post and reading a sign while people blow their tops off shouting during busy road traffic. So it all depends on how a society organises and regulates itself and how easy it feels with what it does otherwise people modify things as it suits them better. So when things seemed difficult Arabs modified the way of writing Arabic and in doing so benefited from this modification. Such simple explanations are ignored by people or they remain ignorant about them yet they claim their research is of highest standard.

Yet other thing in the Quran is letters in the beginning of some surahs. Some of them if were not pronounced as well as written they could confuse people as to what they were ie words or separate letters eg take surah two verse one letters ALIF, LAAM and MEEM. The way they are written in surahs they could be taken for meaningful words because there is a word in Arabic which is pronounced ALAM eg see in surah 94 verse one.

Yet other evidence is the fact that the very first verse of the Quran is always written the very same way ie BISMILLA HIRRAHMAA NIRRAAHEEM. It is written with 19 letters in it always whereas it can be written with a few more letters eg ALIF in ISM of BISMILLAH is MISSING. Word ISM is written in surah 96 verse one with ALIF. Anyone will find that all copies of the Quran throughout the world are written exactly that way. Had each person dictated the Quranic text out of memory and each person wrote it down the way one knew to write it then we ought to see very many differences in written texts of this nature but there are none.

All copies of the Quran have no bismillah at the start of surah nine. Had people made copies as they liked then we will have found variations between them some including and some excluding letters, words and verses in the text. So there is water tight evidence that the Quran as we have it was written down by the messenger of Allah himself and handed down to his people before he passed away. He actually delivered the message of Allah as it was supposed to be delivered ie in recitation and writing otherwise he could not have been chosen as a messenger by Allah. Even we humans do not choose bad workers for getting our works done if we can help it so how could Allah be expected to do such a silly thing as choose someone unfit for the job? That will have ruined the whole purpose and plan of Allah for humanity. Had the final messenger of Allah himself not left an undisputed copy of the Quran behind and the people at the time fully accepting it then people could have ended up divided about it right from the very beginning for ever and none could have united them on the basis of the Quran after him. Today whatever else Muslims do they have only one Quran and copies of the Quran are available throughout the world even from long time in the past. According to some claims we have copies of the Quran even from the time very near to the time of the prophet and some odd pages even from the time of the messenger of Allah that show exactly the same text as we have it today.

Unfortunately Muslims are not good at preservations, observations, research and explorations. It is a miracle in itself for Quran to have survived intact till now somehow because Muslims are such a people who did very little to advance the message of the Quran properly. The way people claiming to be Muslims are busy killing each other it is not going to take very long before they are all gone. Any remaining ones will be done away with by kufaar. But then Allah has a plan of his own so we will come to know whatever awaits for us good or bad. Muslims fight among themselves due to their ignorance and stupidity and not because there is anything wrong with the Quran.