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The Passive voice Direct & Indirect speech

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    Cool The Passive voice Direct & Indirect speech

    The Passive voice
    Direct & Indirect speech


    The Passive Voice
    In other sections, you have seen verbs used in the active voice. The passive voice is sometimes used in English as well. With the active voice, the agent or subject comes before the verb. With the passive, the subject (either stated or implied) follows the verb and is usually preceded with the word by:
    ACTIVE:
    --The doctor wrote a prescription.
    PASSIVE:
    --The prescription was written by the doctor.
    NOTE: In the passive, the object of the active verb becomes the subject.
    To make the passive, use the appropriate form of the verb to be + past participle. Only transitive verbs are used in the passive:
    ACTIVE: Fred helps Jane.
    PASSIVE: Jane is helped by Fred.
    ACTIVE: He is helping her.
    PASSIVE: She is being helped by him.
    ACTIVE: He has helped her.
    PASSIVE: She has been helped by him.
    ACTIVE: He helped her.
    PASSIVE: She was helped by him.
    ACTIVE: He was helping her.
    PASSIVE: She was being helped by him.
    ACTIVE: He had helped her.
    PASSIVE: She had been helped by him.
    ACTIVE: He will help her.
    PASSIVE: She will be helped by him.
    ACTIVE: He is going to help her.
    PASSIVE: She is going to be helped by him.
    Usually the by phrase is omitted in a passive sentence. The passive is used mainly when it is not known or not important to know who was responsible for the action:
    --The house was built in 1960.
    (The by phrase is left out because it is understood that builders built the house).

    Direct and Indirect Speech
    In newspapers, magazines, and books, you will often see quoted or direct speech:
    --They said, "We have no record of this transaction."
    --He stated, "I don't know what happened."

    In spoken English, reported or indirect speech will be used instead:
    --They said that they had no record of this transaction.
    --He stated that he didn't know what happened.

    In reported or indirect speech, no quotation marks are used and the subject of the main clause and the dependent clause are the same.

    Here are some rules for tense usage in indirect speech:
    1. If the main verb of the sentence is in the past (said, reported, stated, etc.), the verb in the dependent clause will also be in the past.
    2. Here is a chart indicating typical transformations:

    QUOTED IN-->REPORTED IN
    simple present-->simple past
    present progressive-->perfect progressive
    present perfect-->past perfect
    simple past-->past perfect
    future-->conditional
    EXAMPLES:
    --I said, "She reads the paper everyday."
    -->I said she read the paper everyday.
    --I said, "She is reading the paper everyday."
    -->I said she was reading the paper....
    --I said, "She has read the paper everyday."
    -->I said she had read the paper....
    --I said, "She read the paper everyday."
    -->I said she had read the paper....
    --I said, "She will read the paper everyday."
    -->I said she would read the paper....
    In reported speech, an imperative will change to an infinitive. Furthermore, say will be replaced by a form of tell:
    --He said, "Show me your passport."
    -->He told me to show my passport.

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    Re: The Passive voice Direct & Indirect speech

    nice

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