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ENGLISH 2ND YEAR: Lesson 12: THE JEWEL OF THE WORLD

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    ENGLISH 2ND YEAR: Lesson 12: THE JEWEL OF THE WORLD


    ENGLISH 2ND YEAR:

    Lesson 12: THE JEWEL OF THE WORLD

    Q1. Give an account of abd-al-rahman-i’s dramatic escape and his adventures in Africa.

    Ans. One day when Abd-al-rahman-I was in a Bedouin camp on the left bank of EuphratesRiver, he saw some horsemen carrying the black flags of Abbasids. Abd-al-Rahman-I jumped into the river and swam across to the Palestine. From there he went to North Africa where he barely escaped assassination at the hands of the governor of the province. He was followed by the spies of Abbasids. Wandering from tribe to tribe, he finally reached Ceuta where he was given refuge by his maternal uncles who were Berbers.

    Q2. What did abd-al-rahman-I do to make himself strong?

    Ans. Abd-al-rahman-I made himself strong by developing a well, disciplined strong army of 40,000 Berbers when he became the leader of the Syrian troops. He won the hearts of his soldiers by generous pay. He brought all of spain under his control very tactfully by providing all the basic facilities, peace and security to his subjects.

    Q3. What did abd-al-rahman-I do to beautify his capital?

    Ans. Abd-al-rahman-I beautified the capital firstly by establishing pure water supply system in it. Secondly, he got a wall constructed around the city for protection from the attack of enemy. Thirdly, he constructed a beautiful palace and garden outside Cordova on the pattern of those built by his ancestors in north eastern Syria. In the garden he implanted beautiful tree that he imported from foreign countries such as peaches and pomegranates.

    Q4. What progress was made by the arabs in spain during the rule of abd-al-rahman-111?

    Ans. During the rule of abd-al-rahman-111, Arabs made a great progress in Spain. Under his rule, the Arabs conquered the lost territories and established peace and other there. The region, Cordova became the most civilized city in Europe. The capital enjoyed one hundred and thirteen thousand homes, twenty one suburbs, seventy libraries and numerous bookshops, mosques and palaces. The paved streets were illumined by lights from the bordering houses. The capital boasted some thirteen thousand weavers and a flourishing leather industry.

    Q5. How did ai-hakam promote learning and scholarship in his kingdom?

    Ans. Al-Hakam took interest in the promotion of learning and scholarship in his kingdom. Being a great scholar himself, he gave great respect and honor to scholars and patronized learning. He established twenty seven free schools in the city. During his region, the university of Cordova raised to a place of pre-eminence. It attracted Christian and Muslim students from all parts of Europe and Muslim world such as Africa and Asia. He built a mosque in the university and decorated it with mosaics brought by byzantine artists. Moreover, he invited professors from the east to the university and gave them attractive salaries and facilities.


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