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Class 11 – chemistry Chapter 11: KINETICS

This is a discussion on Class 11 – chemistry Chapter 11: KINETICS within the 11th forums, part of the Classes category; Class 11 – chemistry Chapter 11: KINETICS Q1. Write a short notes on the following. a. Order or reaction: “Order ...

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    Class 11 – chemistry Chapter 11: KINETICS


    Class 11 – chemistry

    Chapter 11: KINETICS
    Q1. Write a short notes on the following.

    a.
    Order or reaction:
    “Order of the reaction is the sum of the exponents of the concentrations of the reactants involved in the rate expression”. OR “order of the reaction is the number of species involved in the rate determining slow step”.
    The equation is called rate law or rate equation. If ‘a’ is the order of the reaction with respect to A and ‘b’ is the order of the reaction with respect to B then the overall order of reaction n, is:
    n = a + b

    b. Activation energy:
    “Reactants do not pass directly to the product till they acquire an extra amount of energy in addition to the average energy of the reactant molecules in the system. This extra energy is known as activation energy”.
    Molecules having activation energy are called activated molecules. For example if hydrogen and oxygen are mixed in a container, no reaction will occur. This is due to the fact that molecules do not have activation energy. If activation energy is supplied to the molecules, the reaction will occur explosively producing water.

    c. Catalysis:
    Catalysis is a substance which takes part in a chemical reaction and speeds it up, but itself undergoes no permanent chemical change. The process is called catalysis. Catalysis is of a three types, homogeneous catalysis, heterogeneous catalysis and enzyme catalysis.

    d. Inhibition of enzyme reactions:
    Inhibitor is a substances which decrease the efficiency of an enzyme. Many different kinds of molecules inhibit enzyme, and they act in a variety of ways. A major distinction must be made between reversible inhibition and irreversible inhibition. The former involves non-covalent binding of the inhibitor and can always be reversed, at least in principle, by removal of the inhibitor. In some cases, non-cases, non-covalent binding may be so strong as to appear irreversible under physiological conditions. Typsininhibitor binding to trypsin is one such example. In irreversible inhibition on the other hand, a molecule is covalently bound to the enzyme and truly incapacitates it. Irreversible inhibition is frequently encountered in the action of specific toxins and poisons, many of which kill by incapacitating key enzymes. On the other hand, the therapeutic action of many drugs depends on their acting as enzyme inhibitors.

    e. Industrial uses of enzymes:
    Enzymes are used in many industries for example fermentation industries, leather industries, antibiotic manufacturing etc.


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