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CLASS 11—CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 8: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

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    CLASS 11—CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 8: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM

    CLASS 11—CHEMISTRY
    CHAPTER 8: CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM
    Q1. Define the following terms:

    1. Reversible reactions and the state of equilibrium:
    “Reversible reaction is a reaction which occurs both in forward and reverse directions”.
    Types of equilibrium:
    There are two types of equilibrium
    i. Homogeneous equilibrium:
    Homogeneous equilibrium is an equilibrium in which reactants and products are in single state.
    ii. Heterogeneous equilibrium:
    Heterogeneous equilibrium is an equilibrium in which reactants and products are in more than one state.

    2. Law of mass action:
    “The rate at which a substance reacts is directly proportional to its active mass and rate of reaction is directly proportional to the product of active masses of the reacting substances”.
    OR
    “The rate of a reaction is directly proportional to the product of the the molar concentration of each reacting substance raised to a power equal to the number of times the particular substance appears in the balanced chemical equation”.

    3. Significance of equilibrium constant:
    The major applications of equilibrium constant expression are:
    i. Prediction of direction of the reaction.
    ii. Prediction of the extend of a reaction.
    iii. Prediction of the effects of changes in conditions upon an equilibrium system.

    4. Le- chatelier’s principle:
    “When a system is in equilibrium, a change in any one of the factors upon which the equilibrium depends, will cause the equilibrium to shift in such a direction in which the effect of the imposed change is reduced”.
    Effect of pressure change:
    a. Number of moles of the products is less than that of the reactants.
    b. Number of moles of the products is greater than that of the reactants.
    c. Number of moles of products is equal to that of the reactants

    5. Acid Base equilibriums:
    Robert Boyle first labeled substances as either acids or bases
    Acid: acid is a substance which produces hydrogen ion or hydronium ion in its aqueous solution.
    Base: base is a compound which produces hydroxyl ion in its aqueous solution.
    Acids: acid is a proton donor.
    Base: base is proton acceptor.

    6. pH AND pOH:
    “PH of a solution is equal to the logarithm of the reciprocal of molar hydrogen ion concentration”. OR “pH of a solution is the negative logarithm of the molar hydrogen ion concentration”.

    7. Buffer solution:
    “Buffer solution is a solution which resists change in its pH when an acid or alkali is added to it”.

    8. Solubility product:
    “Solubility product of an electrolyte is the product of equilibrium constant and molar concentration of the undissipated electrolyte”.

    9. Common ion effect:
    “Common ion effect is the decrease in the solubility of an electrolyte due to the presence of a common ion produced by another strong electrolyte”.

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