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CLASS 11 – CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 7: THERMOCHEMISTRY

This is a discussion on CLASS 11 – CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 7: THERMOCHEMISTRY within the 11th forums, part of the Classes category; CLASS 11 – CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 7: THERMOCHEMISTRY Q1: Define the following terms: 1. Spontaneous process: “Spontaneous process is a process ...

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    CLASS 11 – CHEMISTRY CHAPTER 7: THERMOCHEMISTRY

    CLASS 11 – CHEMISTRY
    CHAPTER 7: THERMOCHEMISTRY
    Q1: Define the following terms:

    1.
    Spontaneous process:
    “Spontaneous process is a process which once started will continue to happen without the intervention of outside sources”.

    2. Non-Spontaneous process:
    Non-Spontaneous process is a process which once started will not continue to happen without the intervention of outside sources”.

    3. System:
    “System is a part of the universe under scientific observation”. OR “system is anything which is under scientific observation”.

    4. Surrounding:
    “Surrounding is a part of the universe which interacts with the system directly or indirectly”.
    System + surrounding = universe

    5. State of a system:
    “When each property like pressure, temperature, volume etc. of a system has a definite value then the system is said to be in a definite state”.

    6. State function:
    “State function is a property of the system which depends on the state of the system and not on the path through which has got to that state”.

    7. Internal energy of a chemical system:
    “Internal energy of a system is the total energy present in the system”.

    8. First law of thermodynamics:
    “Energy can neither be created nor destroyed through it can be interconverted into its different forms”. OR “total energy of the system and surrounding remains constant”.

    9. Applications of first law of thermodynamics:
    a. Isobaric process:
    “Isobaric process is a process during which pressure on the system remains constant”.
    b. Isochoric process:
    “Isochoric process is a process in which volume of the system remains constant”.

    10. Standard enthalpy changes:
    “Standard enthalpy change is the change in heat contents of a system at standard conditions”.

    11. Standard enthalpy of formation:
    “Standard enthalpy of formation is the enthalpy change during the formation of one mole of a compound from its elements in their standard state”.

    12. Standard enthalpy of reaction:
    “Standard heat of reaction is the amount of heat energy released energy or absorbed during a chemical reaction provided the reactants and products are in their standard states (298k and 1 atm).”

    13. Enthalpy of hydration:
    “Heat of hydration is the amount of heat energy released during the dissolution of one mole of gaseous ions of a substance to produce infinitely dilute solution”.

    14. Enthalpy of solution:
    “Heat of solution is the amount of hear released or absorbed during the dissolution of one mole of a substance in water to produce infinitely dilute solution”.

    15. Enthalpy of neutralization:
    “Heat of neutralization is the amount of heat evolved during the neutralization of one mole of a base by one mole of an acid”.

    16. Lattice energy:
    “Lattice energy is the amount of heat energy released when gaseous ions of opposite charges combine to form one mole of crystalline ionic compound”.

    17. Hess’ s law of constant heat summation:
    “The amount of heat evolved or absorbed in a chemical reaction is the same no matter the reaction occurs in one steps or several steps”.

    18. Born-Haber cycle:
    “Born-Haber cycle is a cycle used for the experimental determination of lattice energy of an ionic crystal”.

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